providing detailed personal account of 'native' (non-European) cultures that they encountered.'16 The work of these men filled the museums of Europe and North America.17 Museums were 'respectable repositories of scientific knowledge about the other,'18 as the collections of the Louvre and the British Museum continue to attest. Between 2008 and 2010 Yale University and Peru were in talks about artifacts that Hiram Bingham had gathered during his expedition to Machu Picchu - which was funded with support from the National Geographic Society, America's most well-known 19th century-founded organization specializing in this field.19 This era, filled with names like Lawrence of Arabia, Rudyard Kipling, Dr. Livingstone, and Howard Carter, is one of vast knowledge that also saw the beginning of the British national archives. The National Archives of the United Kingdom began as the Public Record Office (PRO) in 1838. The reasoning behind national archives - to 'solidify and memorialize...state power' - grows as the state does, as is evident in the British Empire, where recording information solidified colonial rule.20 But the fact that the PRO and the Empire were developed at the same time must not be overlooked, though it often is. As the Empire grew, so did the archival collection. As the archives grew, so did the desire for more information. For any government or empire to become so powerful it must record its proceedings and must store them centrally so that their power can be known and remembered. Prior to the Public Record Office, 'England's public records lay scattered in fifty-six separate record repositories, each of which was separately administered.'21 Consolidating these distinct repositories under one roof, at the height of the British Empire, is not unlike the growth of the Empire itself. Far-flung countries were merged into one central being. The 19th century was, for both empire and archives, a time of government consolidation. Archives and Postcolonialism With a background on the British Empire now established, and the connection between the Empire and records management made clear, the effects on today's post-colonial states must be addressed. The questions of what postcolonial theory is and when it began are rarely agreed upon by two theorists. Many point to Edward Said's Orientalism as the seminal text of postcolonialism, though Jean- Paul Sartre and others had been writing on the plight of Algerians under French rule in a manner similar to modern postcolonialism decades before Said. Noted contemporary postcolonial scholar Bill Ashcroft differentiates between the period after colonialism (post-colonialism) and postcolonialism in that postcolonialism 'is colonialism's interlocutor and antagonist from the moment of colonization' and 'the discourse of the colonized.'22 Of course 'the discourse of the colonized' was greatly expanded in the 20th century during the post-colonial period, so the confusion between the two is understandable. Ashcroft's definition puts aside the differences between British, Spanish, French, Dutch, American, et al. imperialism 31 MICHAEL KARABINOS POST(-)cOLONIAL ARCHIVES 16 Prasad, 'The Return of the Native', 150. 17 Prasad, 'The Return of the Native', 151. 18 Prasad. 'The Return of the Native', 165. 19 Dan Collyns, 'Peru 'to sue Yale for Inca items,' BBC News, 7719583.stm, accessed November 15, 2008. 20 Steedman, Dust69. 21 Levin, The Amateur and the Professional101. 22 Ashcroft, 'Modernity's First Born', 191.

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Jaarboeken Stichting Archiefpublicaties | 2012 | | pagina 33